Tutorial

Here is a quick tutorial to get you started. We assume you have Julia and Makie.jl installed already.

First, we import Makie, which might take a little bit of time because there is a lot to precompile. For this tutorial, we also call inline!(true) so plots appear inline after each example. Otherwise, an interactive window will open when you return a Scene.

Note

Scenes will only display by default in global scope. To make a Scene display when it's defined in a local scope, like a function or a module, you can call display(scene), which will automatically display it in the best available display.

using GLMakie
using AbstractPlotting
AbstractPlotting.inline!(true)

Creating a Scene

A Scene object contains plot objects such as lines, scatters and polys, and is the basis of a Makie figure. You can initialize it like so:

scene = Scene()

The scene is empty as we haven't put anything into it, yet.

Adding plots to a Scene

Let's create a scatter plot. We make a vector of points in a circle and use scatter! to plot them into our scene. Each plot type (e.g. Scatter) in Makie has a normal version (scatter) and a mutating version (scatter!). The normal version returns a Scene with the plot in it, the mutating version adds that plot to an existing Scene. Here we use the mutating version because we have a scene already.

Mutating plotting functions return the changed scene by default.

points = [Point2f0(cos(t), sin(t)) for t in LinRange(0, 2pi, 20)]
colors = 1:20
scatter!(scene, points, color = colors, markersize = 15)

As you can see, we also got a basic 2D axis with the scatter! command. If you use a 3D plotting function, the axis will be a 3D version as well. Sometimes you don't want this automatic axis. In that case, you can use the keyword argument show_axis = false.

Note

You can put your mouse in the plot window and scroll to zoom. Right click and drag lets you pan around the scene, and left click and drag lets you do selection zoom (in 2D plots), or orbit around the scene (in 3D plots).

Changing Attributes

One great feature of Makie is that it uses Observables (or Nodes as a Makie-specific alias), which make it easy to write visualizations that can be updated dynamically with new data.

An Observable is a container object which notifies all its listeners whenever its content changes. Put simply, using Observables, if your input data changes your plots change as well.

Plot objects usually have a collection of attributes, which are observables. If you change them, the plots update and the scene will reflect that. Let's try to change the marker size of the scatter we created last.

To access the Scatter object we added to the scene, we can index into the scene. The scatter is the last object, so we can use scene[end]. Then we change the markersize attribute:

scatterobject = scene[end]
scatterobject.markersize = 30
scene

Plotting Observables

Let's add a line plot to our scene. The corresponding function is lines!.

Imagine that you want to interactively visualize different sine functions along an interval. That means the x values are fixed but the y values depend on the frequency and phase of the sine function. Such a dependency is easy to express with Observables or Nodes for short. Usually, all plot functions accept their input arguments and attributes as Observables. If you don't pass Observables, they get converted internally anyway.

xs = -pi:0.01:pi
frequency = Node(3.0) # Node === Observable
phase = Node(0.0)

ys = lift(frequency, phase) do fr, ph
    @. 0.3 * sin(fr * xs - ph)
end

lines!(scene, xs, ys, color = :blue, linewidth = 3)

You can see that our sine function was nicely visualized. The lift function takes as its first input a function which computes its output from the other arguments, frequency and phase in this case, which are Observables. The output is then stored inside another Observable, ys. Therefore, ys always contains the result of the sine function with the current frequency and phase applied to the values in xs. (If you haven't used the do syntax before, it is Julia's way of passing an anonymous function as the first argument to another function. It's very useful for dealing with Observables.)

Note

For short functions, there is a really convenient macro alternative to lift. Instead of what we wrote above, we could have written ys = @lift(0.3 * sin($frequency .* xs .- $phase)). Just prefix expressions that reference observables with a $ symbol.

Now, we can change the frequency to a different value and the plot will change with it. Observables are mutated with empty square brackets (like Refs).

frequency[] = 9

scene

You see that the line plot has changed to reflect the new frequency. That's how easy it is to create a dynamic visualization with Observables. Imagine the opportunities to hook Observables up with sliders and buttons to control a complex plot.

Saving Static Plots

Makie overloads the FileIO interface. This is how you save this scene as a png:

save("sineplot.png", scene)
Note

Different backends have different possible output formats. GLMakie as a GPU-powered backend can only output bitmaps like png. CairoMakie can output high-quality vector graphics such as svg and pdf, on the other hand those formats don't work well (or at all) with 3D content.

See Output for more information on this.

Creating Animations

Often, we want to create small videos that show how a visualization changes over time. This is really easy to do if we already have a plot with observables. Once we have our scene, we can just change the observables that we want in a closure function and pass that to record, which creates a video for us.

We can just re-use our existing scene. Let's change the phase over time. We just need to supply an iterator with as many elements as we want frames in our video.

framerate = 30 # fps
timestamps = 0:1/framerate:3

record(scene, "phase_animation.mp4", timestamps; framerate = framerate) do t
    phase[] = 2 * t * 2pi
end
┌ Warning: Inefficient re-conversion back to GLNative buffer format. Update GLMakie to support direct buffer access
└ @ AbstractPlotting /builds/JuliaGPU/AbstractPlotting-jl/src/display.jl:410

And here is our result, as we expect the sine function moves sideways.

For more information, see the Animations and the Observables & Interaction sections.

Summary

That concludes our short tutorial. We hope you have learned how to create basic plots with Makie and how easy it is to change and animate them using Observables.

You can check out more examples that you can adapt in the Example Gallery.