Basic Tutorial

Here is a quick tutorial to get you started. We assume you have Julia and GLMakie.jl (or one of the other backends) installed already.

First, we import GLMakie, which might take a little bit of time because there is a lot to precompile. Just sit tight! For this tutorial, we also call AbstractPlotting.inline!(true) so plots appear inline after each example. Otherwise, an interactive window will open when you return a Figure.

using GLMakie
AbstractPlotting.inline!(true)
Note

A Figure is usually displayed whenever it is returned in global scope (e.g. in the REPL). To display a Figure from within a local scope, like from within a function, you can directly call display(figure).

A First Plot

Let's begin by plotting some points using the scatter function.

points = [Point2f0(cos(t), sin(t)) for t in LinRange(0, 2pi, 20)]
colors = 1:20
figure, axis, scatterobject = scatter(points, color = colors, markersize = 15)
figure

You can see that we've split the return value of scatter into three components: figure, axis and scatterobject. Every plotting function in its default form returns an object of type FigureAxisPlot which bundles these three parts, which makes it easy to continue working separately with them.

Changing Attributes

One great feature of Makie is that it uses Observables (or Nodes as a Makie-specific alias), which make it easy to write visualizations that can be updated dynamically with new data.

An Observable is a container object which notifies all its listeners whenever its content changes. Put simply, using Observables, if your input data changes your plots change as well.

Plot objects usually have a collection of attributes, which are observables. If you change them, the plots update immediately. Let's try to change the marker size of our scatter plot:

scatterobject.markersize = 30
figure

Adding A Plot

Let's add another scatter plot to our axis. To add a plot to an existing figure or axis, you use the mutating version with a !. Each plot type such as Scatter has a non-mutating function (scatter) and a mutating function (scatter!) associated with it.

Let's plot another circle. This time we try some different arguments, a circle function and a range of values.

We use scatter! without passing a specific target as the first argument, which plots into the last used axis.

circlefunc = ts -> 1.5 .* Point2f0.(cos.(ts), sin.(ts))
scatter!(circlefunc, LinRange(0, 2pi, 30), color = :red)
figure

Plotting Observables

So far, we have plotted normal "static" values - a simple array of points, or a function evaluated on static values. Makie makes it really easy to plot "dynamic" values as well. This is done using Observables.

Imagine that you want to interactively visualize how a sine function over a constant interval depends on its parameters. That means the x values are fixed but the y values depend on the frequency and phase of the sine function. Such a dependency is easy to express with Observables or Nodes for short.

Usually, all plot functions accept their input arguments and attributes as Observables. If you don't pass Observables, they get converted internally anyway.

xs = -pi:0.01:pi
frequency = Node(3.0) # Node === Observable
phase = Node(0.0)

ys = lift(frequency, phase) do fr, ph
    @. 0.3 * sin(fr * xs - ph)
end

lines!(xs, ys, color = :blue, linewidth = 3)
figure

You can see that our sine function was nicely visualized. The lift function takes as its first input a function which computes its output from the other arguments, frequency and phase in this case, which are Observables. The output is then stored inside another Observable, ys. Therefore, ys always contains the result of the sine function with the current frequency and phase applied to the values in xs. (If you haven't used the do syntax before, it is Julia's way of passing an anonymous function as the first argument to another function. It's very useful for dealing with Observables.)

Note

For short functions, there is a really convenient macro alternative to lift. Instead of what we wrote above, we could have written ys = @lift(0.3 * sin($frequency .* xs .- $phase)). Just prefix expressions that reference observables with a $ symbol.

Now, we can change the frequency to a different value and the plot will change with it. Observables are mutated with empty square brackets (like Refs).

frequency[] = 9
figure

You see that the line plot has changed to reflect the new frequency. That's how easy it is to create a dynamic visualization with Observables. Imagine the opportunities to hook Observables up with sliders and buttons to control a complex plot.

Saving Static Plots

Makie overloads the FileIO interface. This is how you save this figure as a png:

save("sineplot.png", figure)
Note

Different backends have different possible output formats. GLMakie as a GPU-powered backend can only output bitmaps like png. CairoMakie can output high-quality vector graphics such as svg and pdf, on the other hand those formats don't work as well (or at all) with 3D content.

See Output for more information on this.

Creating Animations

Often, we want to create small videos that show how a visualization changes over time. This is really easy to do if we already have a plot with observables. Once we have our figure, we can just change the observables that we want in a closure function and pass that to record, which creates a video for us.

We can just re-use our existing figure. Let's change the phase over time. We just need to supply an iterator with as many elements as we want frames in our video.

framerate = 30 # fps
timestamps = 0:1/framerate:3

record(figure, "phase_animation.mp4", timestamps; framerate = framerate) do t
    phase[] = 2 * t * 2pi
end

And here is our result, as we expect the sine function moves sideways.

For more information, see the Animations and the Observables & Interaction sections.

Summary

That concludes our short tutorial. We hope you have learned how to create basic plots with Makie and how easy it is to change and animate them using Observables.

You can check out more examples that you can adapt in the Example Gallery.